SAR PHASES

All the information about and feedback on, Search & Rescue in South Africa.

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SAR PHASES

Unread post by Heksie » Mon Nov 02, 2015 4:07 pm

INCERFA

UNCERTAINTY PHASE - A SITUATION WHEREIN UNCERTAINTY EXISTS AS TO THE SAFETY OF AN AIRCRAFT AND ITS OCCUPANTS.

1 Radio contact is lost and not re-established within 30 minutes of ETA at the next mandatory reporting point or scheduled reporting time.

2 An aircraft is known or believed to be subject to irregular operation i.e. when it is-

2.1 Not following the correct track or maintaining the correct flight levels.

2.2 Not in normal communication.

2.3 Unable to use appropriate navigation aids.

2.4 Experiencing navigational difficulties.

2.4 Experiencing hazardous weather conditions.

3 Experiencing impaired operating efficiency/technical difficulties, but not to the extent that the flight cannot be completed.

4 An aircraft operating on a flight plan stipulating alerting action after a specified time fails to arrive or is not in contact with the ATSU by the time specified in the flight plan and preliminary checks fail to reveal the whereabouts of the aircraft.

5 An aircraft which is proceeding to an unmanned aerodrome but which is operating on an “overdue action” flight plan, fails to report the arrival by the time specified in the flight plan and preliminary checks fail to reveal the whereabouts of the aircraft

Note: The evaluation of other circumstances, e.g. knowledge that the aircraft is experiencing difficulties, renders it advisable to declare the uncertainty phase whether the pilot declares an emergency or not!

ALERFA

ALERT PHASE – A SITUATION WHEREIN APPREHENSION EXISTS AS TO THE SAFETY OF AN AIRCRAFT AND ITS OCCUPANTS:

1 The attempts made during the uncertainty phase to establish contact with the aircraft or to gain any news from other sources have failed and the aircraft is clearly overdue;

2 An aircraft, which has been cleared to land, has failed to land within 5 minutes of the estimated time of landing and communications have not been re-established with the aircraft;

3 Information has been received which indicates that the operating efficiency of the aircraft for which the uncertainty phase was declared or that of another aircraft has become impaired, but not to the extent that a forced landing is likely; and

4 There is reason to believe that the operation of an aircraft is being interfered with.

5 The transmission of a PAN-PAN-PAN!

6 An aircraft is known to be operating in other than normal circumstances, or is LOST and there is reason to believe that in consequence the safe conduct of the flight is in jeopardy.

Note: “Other than normal circumstances” may include all or any of the circumstances for which the declaration of INCERFA is required and any circumstances having comparable consequences. The ALERT phase shall be declared whether the pilot declares an emergency or not!

DETRESFA

DISTRESS PHASE - A SITUATION WHEREIN THERE IS REASONABLE CERTAINTY THAT AN AIRCRAFT AND ITS OCCUPANTS ARE THREATENED BY GRAVE AND IMMINENT DANGER AND REQUIRE IMMEDIATE ASSISTANCE.


1 Attempts made during the alert phase to establish contact with the aircraft and to gain information through more widespread enquiries have failed and the aircraft is clearly missing and probably in distress;

2 The fuel on board is considered exhausted or insufficient for the aircraft to reach safety;

3 Information is received which indicates that the operating efficiency of the aircraft has become impaired to the extent that a forced landing is likely;

4 Information is received, or it is reasonably certain that the aircraft is about to make or has made a forced landing, or has crashed; and

5 The transmission of MAYDAY-MAYDAY-MAYDAY!

6 A downed aircraft is inadvertently located as the result of a sighting or of homing on an ELT transmission.
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Re: SAR PHASES

Unread post by ACE MAN » Mon Nov 02, 2015 5:23 pm

Good for everyone to revisit this that may have been glossed over in training - Tks Sanchez
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Re: SAR PHASES

Unread post by ACE MAN » Mon Nov 02, 2015 5:38 pm

I have been corrected though that the PAN call is PAN-PAN 3 times, ie "PAN,PAN-PAN,PAN-PAN,PAN"
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Re: SAR PHASES

Unread post by cage » Mon Nov 02, 2015 7:10 pm

ACE MAN wrote:I have been corrected though that the PAN call is PAN-PAN 3 times, ie "PAN,PAN-PAN,PAN-PAN,PAN"
The radio handbook clearly states MAYDAY or PAN spoke 3 times.
Who would have the time for that many PAN's when you're trying to fly the aircraft?
urgency.jpeg
EDIT: WHoops its sideways :shock:
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Re: SAR PHASES

Unread post by ACE MAN » Mon Nov 02, 2015 7:23 pm

I am sorry but who wrote that book under what authority? I am talking ICAO or in the very least the RT manual CAP413
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Re: SAR PHASES

Unread post by cage » Mon Nov 02, 2015 7:46 pm

Its a fairly standard book in pilot training kits.
The average Joe that Santjie is likely to be finding isn't likely to be connected to ICAO in any meaningful way.
It's Dietland Lemmpes book.

ICAO themselves don't prescribe, they do state "preferably spoken 3 times":
Screen Shot 2015-11-02 at 19.42.45.png
Screen Shot 2015-11-02 at 19.42.20.png
I would think that common sense and practical circumstances would dictate. If you're in trouble who, apart from the avcom specialists, would moan if you have insufficient PANs..
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Re: SAR PHASES

Unread post by ACE MAN » Mon Nov 02, 2015 8:01 pm

So - how do you do a mayday call - it also says 'preferably spoken 3 times'. I am familiar with ICAO docs etc just raising the issue to a more professional level. Most guys Santjie goes looking for do not make any calls at all.

PS. also the word is PAN PAN - not PAN . I also learnt it the wrong way - just putting it out there , maybe some one cares
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Re: SAR PHASES

Unread post by cage » Mon Nov 02, 2015 8:09 pm

This is probably something the mods should split off into a different thread in the academy.
From the small number of people I've spoken to that have been involved with incidents not one made a call, simply no time and it's not like anyone on the other end could help.

I guess it comes down to what you have time for.
Lempes book teaches 3 of each. ICAO would like three MAYDAYS but one would do.
Considering how much other info is more valuable - like who you are and where you are - do another 3 PANs help?

If I was listening out the first PAN or MAYDAY would have my attention.
Speaking purely in a GA context..
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Re: SAR PHASES

Unread post by ACE MAN » Mon Nov 02, 2015 8:19 pm



I am sure you have all seen this.
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